Case Studies: Warsaw's Metro II-nd line – first stage: central part, Poland

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Project Overview
Figure 1: Art in public area – project of metro station names by Wojciech Fangor, Poland
Warsaw's Metro II-nd line, Poland
Project Type: Greenfield
Type of Project Financing: Public
Contract duration: 2009-2015
Project Time Line
2005: Decision about investment and localisation
2007: Open competition for architect conception
2008: Competitive dialog for design and construction -cancelled (too high prices offered)
2009: New tender for construction works - winning offer consortium: Gülermak (Turkey), Astaldi (Italy) and Polish company PBDiM
2009-2014: Design and construction works
September 2014 - February 2015: Commissioning, start-up
Other important dates for the project: March 8, 2015: Inauguration


On the 8th of March 2015, the first passengers of the second line of Warsaw Metro were serviced. It is an important development of public transport infrastructure, connecting two parts of the capital city lying on the two banks of the Vistula River.

It is a central part of a much wider transport project, connecting the downtown with suburbs, and realising fast transport on the direction East-West and changes to metro line I, as well as to overland trains. Most passengers use the convenient interchange to the suburban train at the last station "Dworzec Wileński". Traffic plans forecasted about 100,000 passengers per day, however, the first day, the second metro line handled 233,000 passengers, and 110-130.000 passengers during its first days of operation


The constructed central section includes seven (7) stations:




The project entailed 6.1 km of tunnels (2 tunnels – Northern and Southern, connecting all the stations and the tunnel under Vistula River), 6 ventilation shafts and holding tracks at stations Rondo Daszyńskiego and Dworzec Wileński – allowing for the future extension of the II metro line in the direction of Targówek or Bemowo, and at Stadion Narodowy station – allowing the execution in the direction of Gocław.

The next stage of the development of the second metro line will be realised between 2016-2019, and will include new tunnels and 6 stations (3 on each side / end).

The tunnel construction was executed by using the world’s latest technology, i.e the drilling method that uses special circular cutting machines TBM EPB (Tunnel Boring Machine – Earth Pressure Balance). The construction of the stations was executed by the top-down method.

The Contracting Authority (Public Party)

The contracting authority was the Capital City of Warsaw, represented by the Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (Municipal Transportation Authority), on behalf of Metro Warszawskie Sp. z o.o. (the city's metro operating company). Such a structure (the order on behalf of urban transport operator, charging for rides) allowed for fully recovering VAT.

Sources of Financing

The project is an example of realising key investments with the use of EU funds. It was co-financed by funding from the Cohesion Fund within the framework of Priority VII “Environment-friendly Transport”, Actions 7.3 “Urban Transport in Metropolitan Areas” of the Operational Program “Infrastructure and Environment”. The budget was funded as follows:

  • Capital City of Warsaw (53%): PLN 3,150,000M (about € 750 M)
  • Cohesion Fund (47%): PLN 2,770.000M (about € 660 M)


The new line provides an efficient connection between the parts of the city lying on both sides of the River Vistula. In addition, most people use the convenient interchange to the suburban train at the last station "Dworzec Wileński" (the highest passenger traffic is noticed at this station). Traffic plans forecasted about 100,000 passengers per day, although the first day the line handled 233,000 passengers, and 110-130.000 passengers were served during the first days of operation.

Four new metro stations service the downtown and Wola - city areas, with modern, fast growing office space.

The main external stakeholders have been passengers, inhabitants of Warsaw and residents of the areas to the East of Warsaw, served by suburban trains from the station “Warszawa Wileńska” (about 100 regional trains daily). As Warsaw's Metro is an important investment for the city and passengers have long awaited for this project, it has generally received great support.

Key Purpose for Public Financing Model Selection

The City of Warsaw, the Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (Municipal Transportation Authority), and the Metro Warszawskie Sp. z o.o exploited the opportunity of the Cohesion Fund offering 47% of the total budget.

Project Timing

Initial work on the construction of the metro in Warsaw began before World War II. However, the great crisis of the 30s stopped all works. The division dealing with the metro issues was liquidated.

The second attempt took place in the 50s, in the days of socialism. They started the construction of the so-called deep underground, which was to be built 20-50 meters below ground level. Due to political and military reasons, the tunnel was to pass deep under the Vistula river and be adapted to any movement of heavy rail cars on tracks of underground. A deep Metro was also to serve as a shelter, like London's, as well as Moscow’s underground during World War II.

The construction began in 1951. However, because of geological difficulties (including quicksand) and increasing costs in 1953 it was limited to the construction of the experimental section. After the failure of the construction of a deep underground metro, censorship over a long period of time (up to the 80s') delineated with any publications that mentioned the metro issue in Warsaw.

The first metro line in Warsaw was built between 1982-2008. The implementation of the central section of the second metro line fortunately progressed much faster.

Project Locality and Market Geography

The new line is located under the downtown of Warsaw. It crosses the North-South first line of Warsaw's metro and connects the two banks of Vistula River. Underground construction was the reason for the development of a district office at the end of the new line, at the Wola district. Several new investment projects emerged, inter alia “Warsaw Spire” with a 220 meter high tower (100.000 m2, new side of UE agenda FRONTEX), “Mennica Legacy Tower” (65.000 m2), “Generation Park” (80.000 m2 office and 25.000 m2 retail and service) and others.

Procurement & Contractual Structure


It was based on procurement law regulations.

The first step was to hold, in 2007, an open competition for architect concept . One of the concepts that lead to the choice of the winner was to involve the metro’s public space in the promotion of art. In one of the stations, the walls are made of LCD panels, allowing the display of images. All segments station names are made according to the project design by Wojciech Fangor and occupy a considerable part of the surface of the walls on the platforms.

The next step in year 2008 was a competitive dialogue for design and construction. The city authorities wanted to build the new metro line, linking the city center inter alia with the national stadium before the championships EURO 2012.


Figure 4: National Stadium in Warsaw, serviced by ”Stadion Narodowy” metro station


Bidders, hoping for pressure from the public opinion side to realise the investment, proposed very high prices that were not approved by the city:

The following 5 offers were submitted:

Consortium 1:

  • China Railway Tunnel Group Co., Ltd, China
  • DECOMA - a limited liability company with its registered office in Warsaw, Poland

Offered price:

with VAT: 4.498.000.000,- zł.

without VAT:3.686.885.245,- zł.

Consortium 2:

  • ALPINE BAU GmbHAlte Bundesstraβe 10, 5071 Wals bei Salzburg, Austria – Leader;
  • FCC CONSTRUCCIÓN, SACalle Balmes No. 36, 08007 Barcelona, Spain;
  • PBG S.A. Poland;
  • Przedsiębiorstwo Robót Górniczych„Metro” Sp. z o.o., Poland
  • Stump – HYDROBUDOWA Sp. z o.o., Poland

Offered price:

with VAT: 5.618.832.000,-zł.

without VAT: 4.605.600.000,-zł.

Consortium 3:

  • ASTALDI S.p. A., Italy - Leader;
  • GULERMAK Agir Sanayi Insaat e Taahhut A.S.Turkey;
  • Construction Company for Roads and Bridges, based in Minsk Mazowiecki, Poland;

Offered price:

with VAT: 4.117.500.000,-zł.

without VAT: 3.375.000.000,-zł.

Consortium 4:

  • Mostostal Warszawa S.A., Poland - Leader,
  • STRABAG Sp. z o.o., Poland
  • STRABAG AG, Germany;
  • DYWIDAG International GmbH, Germany;
  • DYWIDAG Bau GmbH, Germany
  • Mine Construction Company PeBeKa SA, Poland

Offered price:

with VAT: 4.974.999.999,44 zł.

without VAT: VAT: 4.077.868.852,-zł.

Consortium 5:

  • DRAGADOS S.A., Spain - Leader;
  • Przedsiębiorstwo Robót Inżynieryjnych POL – AQUA S.A., Poland;

Offered price:

with VAT: 6.109.760.000,- zł.

without VAT:,-zł.

The process was cancelled.

In October 2008, without the pressure to finish the metro line before the championship EURO 2012, a new tender for construction works was announced. The winning offer was by the consortium Gülermak (Turkey), Astaldi (Italy) and the Polish company PBDiM. The offer was €350M cheaper than the one the same consortium submitted in the competitive dialog.

Contract Structure

The subject of the contract was “Design and Construction of II metro line from station Rondo Daszyńskiego to station Dworzec Wileński”.

The central section of metro line II was executed by AGP Metro Polska S.C. consisting of 3 companies:

  • Italian – Astaldi S.p.A. – As the leader
  • Turkish – GÜLERMAK Ağir Sanayi İnşaat ve Taahhüt A. Ş.
  • Polish – PBDiM – Przedsiębiorstwo Budowy Dróg i Mostów Sp. z o.o.

The appointment of AGP Metro Polska S.C. SPV was an innovative form of executing the investment. Due to the latter, works on various sections are not divided between separate companies. The combination of the best specialists from three companies that form task forces allows for taking full advantage of their knowledge and experience. This form of cooperation ensures consistent quality of work along the entire section of the second metro line.

Risk Allocation

The risk of design and construction was passed on mainly to the contractor who had a dominant influence on the selection of technology and materials.

Costs of maintenance and exploitation are on the public side, similarly to revenue, funding and regulations risks.

Force majeure was partially included in the contract - e.g. the contract provides for indexation of the contract value in case of severe conditions. Other Force majeure risks, which actually eventuated were: more than 600 unexploded bombs from World War II and groundwater flooding the construction of the metro station "Centrum Nauki Kopernik".


Figure 5: Risk allocation


The contract for the design and construction of the central section of the second metro line in Warsaw was signed on October the 28th, 2009. Its original shape provided for project completion in the fourth quarter of 2013. However, given the construction difficulties and construction downtime term, it was postponed until 30 September 2014.

Works were delayed, among others, due to the flooding of the station “Centrum Nauki Kopernik” (Copernicus Science Centre) construction site. In August 2012, builders encountered the watercourse during work on the construction. The area was flooded, stations were closed, the car tunnel over the metro station was also closed and repair works lasted almost a year, until June 2013.

In May the 7th 2013, the AGP Metro Poland S.C. and the Capital City of Warsaw entered into an agreement under which the completion date was moved forward.

The change of the date of completion of the contract was due to causes independent of the Contractor and Investor, resulting in up to 337 days of delay relative to the original schedule - days required for the additional works resulting from the need to rebuild and move underground installations not mapped, suspension of construction work due to the discovery of unexploded bomb from WWII, archaeological artefacts, as well as adverse weather conditions.

The project opened to passengers on the 8th of March 2015. However, complaints about wrong information at stations of the II line have been made since the opening day of the Metro. Most complaints concern poor information of the connector interchange between I and II lines at Świętokrzyska station. Passengers also complain about lack of proper information about transfers to the “Stadion Narodowy” station. Others add that there are too many additional signs, e.g. banning smoking or skating, but there is lack of clear marking showing the shortest route to the platform.

The opening of the new line results also in new bus and tram services, the return of many lines to old routes as before construction time, but also the shortening of a number of them. Changes in the communication system include many of the comments made by inhabitants of Warsaw during the public consultation.

Project Outcomes

1. Ease and speed of transport.

2. Development of Wola and Prague - new investments in previously neglected neighbourhoods and increase of property values.

3. Metro construction led to an interest of developers for districts that did not attract investment before. An example is the district "Wola", where a few hundred thousand sqm of office and retail space are currently being built. According to calculations of HomeBroker company, direct location on the metro line increases housing values by 20%.

4. The metro is widely considered to be environmentally friendly mode of transport. As a mean of public transport with high capacity, it handles considerable traffic flows and thus can reduce flows on land connections. This is particularly relevant in Warsaw, where the primary mean of public transport is bus. Furthermore, the new line speeds up connections between parts of the city lying on both banks of the Vistula River.


The initial version of this wiki page has been produced within the framework of the BENEFIT project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 635973.

  • Wielobranżowy projekt koncepcyjnydla zaprojektowania i budowyodcinka centralnego II linii metra w Warszawieod Ronda Daszyńskiego do Dworca Wileńskiego (Project Concept to design and construction of central section of II metro line in Warsaw) on line:
  • Newspaper article, Gazeta Wyborcza, on-line: