BENEFIT seeks to take an innovative approach by analysing funding schemes within an inter-related system. Funding schemes are deemed to be “successful” (or not) depending on the Business Model that generates them as well as their stakeholders and policy contexts. The performance of the Business Model is affected by the implementation typology and the transport mode context – together with other contextual changes over time and space, including changes in overarching policy frameworks. It is matched successfully (or not) by a financing scheme. Relations between actors are partially described by a governance model (contracting arrangements). These are key elements in Transport Infrastructure Provision, Operation and Maintenance, as illustrated in the BENEFIT Figure.
Figure: BENEFIT Key Elements in Transport Infrastructure Production, Operation and Maintenance
Success in relation to the application of a particular business model is seen here as an assessment of the appropriate matching of elements. Within BENEFIT, funding and financing schemes are analysed in this respect. Describing these key elements proposed through their characteristics and attributes and clustering each of them into typologies is the basis of, first, developing a generic input/output model. Identifying best matches and their inter-relations (matching principles) leads to move from a generic model to a Decision Matching Framework that is developed to provide policy makers and providers of funding (and financing) extensive comparative information on the advantages and limitations of different funding schemes for transport infrastructure projects and improve the awareness of policy makers on the needs of projects serving an efficient and performing transport network within the Horizon 2050. Moreover, the model allows policy makers to identify changes that may be undertaken in order to improve the potential of success, such as improving the value proposition of the business model.